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AD 1963 marked the signing of the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) by the United States, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union wherein it was agreed that nuclear weapons testing would no longer be performed above ground surface.

Since then, the global radiocarbon level of the atmosphere has decreased through uptake in the oceans and biological systems – e.g.

At any given time, the radiocarbon levels of living things and the atmosphere is ideally similar.

The proliferation of atmospheric thermo-nuclear testing in the early 1950s until 1963 added vast amount of artificial radiocarbon (bomb carbon) in the atmosphere, increasing global radiocarbon levels by almost 100% compared to the pre-1950 level.

The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen.

The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died.

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Omnivores and carnivores lag the atmosphere further because their carbon sources are another step removed.

However, it has been confirmed that atmospheric C concentration with the date.

Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, this pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half-century.

The atmospheric curve depicted in Figure 1 is a northern hemisphere annual growing season average.

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